The general concept of forging is transforming metal by hammering or under pressure. Hammering can be either manual or mechanical, whereas pressure is applied with a press.

The most commonly used metal for forging is steel. Steel is forged when heated. Copper and aluminum are also forged. When forging highly strained parts are made, especially if shape and cross-section change quickly. By forging fibers are kneaded and the material becomes firmer and more flexible. Shafts, gears and levers are forged.

Steel that contains between 0.04% and 1.5% oxygen can be forged. The more oxygen it contains the harder it is forged. Steel should be heated slowly in order for the heat to reach the center evenly. Steel becomes coarsely granulated if it is heated too much in the beginning. Once steel is heated to 1300°F, heating is sped up until the final temperature of forging is reached. The final temperature depends on the amount on oxygen in steel. The more oxygen it contains the higher is the temperature. Temperature in forgeries is measured in glow temperature because there is danger for oxygen to start burning out and steel becoming softer. When forged, metal is permanently plastically deformed.

Artistic forgery

Artistic forgery is considerably different from industrial forgery or forgery with manual tools or any other kind of forgery. In artistic forgery the most important feature is the look – artistic value of the product. Hand-forged products of wrought craft are intended as decoration but they also have a functional purpose.



blacksmith forge


Igor kanop, Creative iron